Scoping study research questions are broad in nature as the focus is on summarizing breadth of evidence. Synthesis: (Tabular with some narrative) The extraction of data for a scoping review may include a charting table or form but a formal synthesis of findings from individual studies and the generation of a 'summary of findings' (SOF) table is not required. However, it is difficult to determine whether a systematic review is advantageous when a scoping study does not involve methodological quality assessment of included studies. Framework. Scoping studies differ from systematic reviews because authors do not typically assess the quality of included studies [3–5]. Lastly, we propose additional considerations for scoping study methodology in order to support the advancement, application and relevance of scoping studies in health research. A review of the nursing literature. 11.1.2 Scoping reviews compared to other types of review; 11.1.3 The scoping review framework; 11.2 Development of a scoping review protocol. Using a scoping review methodology, 138 papers met the search criteria and these studies were used to develop a conceptual framework summarizing and synthesing the direct and indirect pathways in which urban horticulture and public health are interconnected. In the abovementioned HIV study, authors linked the broadly stated research question with a more specific purpose 'to identify the key research priorities in HIV and rehabilitation to advance policy and practice for people living with HIV in Canada' [7]. Although more scoping reviews are being done, their methodological and reporting quality need improvement. Grant M, Booth A: A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Inclusion criteria for study selection were as follows: (1) The article was an overview, narrative review, theoretical model, or special interest paper. [5] reported that their search strategy yielded a vast amount of literature, making it difficult to determine how in depth to carry out the information synthesis. We invite others to trial our recommendations and continue the process of refining and improving this methodology. This series of consultations engaged community members in the development of the study outcome and provided opportunities for knowledge transfer about HIV and rehabilitation research.  |  Anderson S, Allen P, Peckham S, Goodwin N: Asking the right questions: scoping studies in the commissioning of research on the organisation and delivery of health services. Cookies policy. Based on our experiences, we were uncertain about the nature and extent of information to extract from the included studies. Epub 2009 Jul 23. What is the purpose of the research? statement and A scoping review of literature published in English since 1990 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE. For example, the … Mir Alvarez C, Hourcade R, Lefebvre B, Pilot E. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Answering this key question will help identify what kind of theory, model or framework is most appropriate. As a result, we recommend three distinct steps in framework stage five to increase the consistency with which researchers undertake and report scoping study methodology: analyzing the data, reporting results, and applying meaning to the results. DL undertook the literature review process. In this paper, we apply our experiences using the Arksey and O'Malley framework to build on the existing methodological framework. Is it to: (a) Describe or guide the process of knowledge translation; (b) Determine the factors affecting implementation outcomes; or (c) Evaluate an implementation? Epub 2020 Aug 13. This raised questions related to rigor and led to our recommendations for undertaking a systematic team approach to conducting a scoping study. The PRISMA extension statement for reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses of health care interventions: checklist and explanations. HC is supported by a Doctoral Award from the CIHR, the CIHR Quality of Life Strategic Training Program in Rehabilitation Research and the Canadian Occupational Therapy Foundation. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2010, 14: 448-458. Our framework aims to clarify when a scoping study might be an appropriate method to adopt and how we might go Nevertheless, further development of steps for undertaking knowledge translation as a part of the scoping study framework is required. Our scoping review will use the Donabedian conceptual framework 15 for assessing the quality of care using structure, process and outcome components of quality, to map PC-QIs and categorise them according to relevant thematic domains. This search yielded seven citations that reflected on scoping study methodology, which were reviewed by one author (DL). This is particularly true for process-oriented data, such as understanding how a theory or model has been used within a study. A helpful strategy may be to envision the content and format of the intended outcome that may assist researchers to clearly determine the purpose at the beginning of a study. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Danielle Levac. Nilsen and colleagues recommend ensuring you have a clear idea of the overall goal of your research [5]. The role and relevance of analyzing process data and using qualitative content analysis within scoping study methodology requires further discussion. In this paper, we build on the existing methodological framework for scoping studies outlined by Arksey and O'Malley [6] and provide recommendations to clarify and enhance each stage, which may increase the consistency with which researchers undertake and report scoping studies. Springer Nature. As a result, we recommend that researchers consider the meaning of their scoping study results and the broader implications for research, policy, and practice. KO is a clinical epidemiologist, physical therapist, and postdoctoral fellow in the School of Rehabilitation Science at McMaster University. Refining the search strategy based on abstracts retrieved from the search and reviewing full articles for study inclusion is also a critical step. NLM Goals of these studies included: identifying research priorities within HIV and rehabilitation [7], applying motor learning strategies within pediatric physical and occupational therapy intervention approaches [8], and exploring the use of theory within studies of knowledge translation [9]. DL and HC conceived of this paper. Scoping studies present an increasingly popular option for synthesizing health evidence. However, the description of thematic analysis requires additional detail to assist authors in understanding and completing this step. Scoping reviews are a relatively new approach to evidence synthesis and currently there exists little guidance regarding the decision to choose between a systematic review or scoping review approach when synthesising evidence. PubMed  doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100. Scoping studies are increasingly common for broadly searching the literature on a specific topic, yet researchers lack an agreed-upon definition of and framework for the methodology. To clarify this stage, we recommend that the research team collectively develop the data-charting form to determine which variables to extract that will help to answer the research question. School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University, 1400 Main Street West, Room 403, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Danielle Levac, Heather Colquhoun & Kelly K O'Brien, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Toronto, 160-500 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, You can also search for this author in Brien et al. Another consideration for scoping study methodology is the potential need to assess included studies for methodological quality. this manuscript is to present a protocol for a scoping review of models and frameworks of patient engagement in health services research. This suggests authors might have an overall study purpose with multiple objectives articulated by Arksey and O'Malley that are required in order to help achieve their overall purpose. Can J Occup Ther. Specific recommendations to clarify and enhance this methodology are outlined for each stage of the Arksey and O'Malley framework. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JP, Clarke M, Devereaux PJ, Kleijnen J, Moher D. J Clin Epidemiol. Grant and Booth [4] imply that a lack of quality assessment limits the uptake of scoping study findings into policy and practice. The amount of literature reviewed in our studies ranged from 31 (DL) to 146 (KO) publications. Methods: Drawing on Arksey and O’Malley’s and Levac et al.’s framework for scoping reviews, we designed our protocol to identify relevant a) published articles through systematic searches of 7 Anderson et al. By using this website, you agree to our This product should be tied to the purpose of the scoping study as recommended in framework stage one. Finally, we advocate for labeling the methodology as the 'Arksey and O'Malley framework' to provide consistency for future use. 10.1177/1049732305276687. We outline a framework for conducting a scoping study based on our recent experiences of reviewing the literature on services for carers for people with mental health problems. [http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/29418.html]. organizing framework is rarely used to plan, implement, and/or evaluate TA” (Katz & Wandersman, 2016, p. 417). Given the importance of knowledge transfer and exchange in the uptake of research evidence [12, 13], the consultation stage can be used to specifically translate the preliminary scoping study findings and develop effective dissemination strategies with stakeholders in the field, offering additional value to a scoping study. 1.2 Purpose of the Review The purpose of the scoping review described in this paper was to identify the core elements of TA models and USA.gov. Epub 2009 Jul 21. Scoping studies have been criticized for rarely providing methodological detail about how results were achieved [1]. Abstract. In the most recent attempt to create some clarity as to what a scoping review is, Colquhoun et al. 11.1.3 The scoping review framework The framework originally proposed by Arksey and O’Malley (2005) has been influential in the conduct of scoping reviews. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Brien et al. 2009, 21: 345-355. This process offered an ideal mechanism to enhance the validity of the study outcome while translating findings with the community. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Arksey and O'Malley [6] suggest that consultation is an optional stage in conducting a scoping study. While our research questions did not directly relate to any quality assessment debate, we recognize the challenges in assessing quality among the vast range of published and grey literature that may be included in scoping studies. Arksey and O'Malley [6] acknowledge the need to maintain a broad scope to research questions, however we found our research questions lacked the direction, clarity, and focus needed to inform subsequent stages of the research process, such as identifying studies and making decisions about study inclusion. All authors drafted the manuscript. 2008, 6: 7-10.1186/1478-4505-6-7. scoping reviews should use some form of quality assessment. 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.02.010. PubMed  Int J Nurs Stud. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF SCOPING REVIEWS Scoping reviews, like systematic reviews, require comprehensive and structured searches of the literature to maximize the capture of relevant information, provide reproducible results, and decrease potential bias … 10.1007/s10461-009-9528-z. Epub 2009 Jul 20. Recommendations include: clarifying and linking the purpose and research question (stage one); balancing feasibility with breadth and comprehensiveness of the scoping process (stage two); using an iterative team approach to selecting studies (stage three) and extracting data (stage four); incorporating a numerical summary and qualitative thematic analysis, reporting results, and considering the implications of study findings to policy, practice, or research (stage five); and incorporating consultation with stakeholders as a required knowledge translation component of scoping study methodology (stage six). However, it appears authors inherently first summarized the extent, range, and nature of research (purpose one) and identified gaps in the existing literature (purpose four) in order to subsequently identify the key research priorities in HIV and rehabilitation (author purpose). Cite this article. Despite our collective use of the Arksey and O'Malley framework, two authors (DL, HC) titled their studies as 'scoping reviews' while the other used 'scoping study.' Abstract Prior to the Covid-19 global pandemic, we reviewed literature and identified comprehensive evidence of the efficacy of blended learning for pre-registration nursing students who learn across distances and/or via satellite campuses. Arksey and O'Malley [6] indicate that synthesis of material is critical as scoping studies are not a short summary of many articles. One scoping study included a consultation phase comprised of focus groups and interviews with 28 stakeholders including people living with HIV, researchers, educators, clinicians, and policy makers [7]. Ann Intern Med. Article  2005; 8(1):19–32. 10.1002/chp.47. 2005, 8: 19-32. In their subsequent work, Levac et al. However, it is unclear when, how, and why to consult with stakeholders, and how to analyze and integrate these data with the findings. Ongoing considerations include: establishing a common accepted definition and purpose(s) of scoping studies; defining methodological rigor for the assessment of scoping study quality; debating the need for quality assessment of included studies; and formalizing knowledge translation as a required element of scoping methodology. We also recommend that researchers clearly articulate the type of stakeholders with whom they wish to consult, how they will collect the data (e.g., focus groups, interviews, surveys), and how these data will be analyzed, reported, and integrated within the overall study outcome. In designing the protocol for our scoping review of reviews, we drew upon Arksey and O'Malley's11 seminal work as well as recent scoping review publications.13, 14 Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review framework outlines a five stage approach with each stage discussed below. The team proceeded to conduct a second consultation with 17 new and returning stakeholders whereby the team presented a preliminary framework of HIV and rehabilitation research and stakeholders refined the framework to further identify six key research priorities on HIV and rehabilitation. Additional inclusion criteria can also be used, such as temporal (time), thematic, or geographic. According to Mays et al (2001), scoping reviews or scoping studies aim “to map rapidly the key concepts underpinning a research area and the main sources and types of evidence available, and can be undertaken as stand-alone projects in their own right, especially where an area is complex or has not been reviewed comprehensively before” (p. 194). In an effort to provide guidance to authors undertaking scoping studies, Arksey and O'Malley [6] developed a six-stage methodological framework: identifying the research question, searching for relevant studies, selecting studies, charting the data, collating, summarizing, and reporting the results, and consulting with stakeholders to inform or validate study findings (Table 2). PubMed Central  Epub 2018 Sep 4. Scoping studies are an increasingly popular approach to reviewing health research evidence. NIH However, no universal scoping study definition or purpose exists (Table 1) [1, 2]. Davis K, Drey N, Gould D: What are scoping studies? This could include, but would not be limited to, the minimum level of analysis required and the requirements for reporting results. Brien et al. Authors shared preliminary findings from the literature review phase of the scoping study with stakeholders and asked whether they may be able to identify any additional emerging issues related to HIV and rehabilitation not yet published in the evidence. Arksey and O'Malley [6] encouraged other authors to refine their framework in order to enhance the methodology. We recommend researchers clearly establish a purpose for the consultation, which may include sharing preliminary findings with stakeholders, validating the findings, or informing future research. Ann Intern Med. In 2005, Arksey and O'Malley published the first methodological framework for conducting scoping studies. Among other objectives, scoping reviews help determine whether a systematic review of the literature is warranted. The third purpose is to summarize and disseminate research findings, but we question how this differs from other narrative or systematic literature reviews. Miller NP, Ardestani FB, Dini HS, Shafique F, Zunong N. J Glob Health. The second purpose is to assess the need for a full systematic review. PubMed  This scoping review will adopt the methodology for JBI scoping reviews as described in the 2015 JBI Reviewers’ Manual.19,20 Inclusion criteria Types of participants This review will consider studies that include nurse practitioners in any specialty or the education of nurse practitioners in any specialty at the graduate or post-graduate level. Recommendations include: clarifying and linking the purpose and research question; balancing feasibility with breadth and comprehensiveness of the scoping process; using an iterative team approach to selecting studies and extracting data; incorporating a numerical summary and qualitative thematic analysis; identifying the implications of the study findings for policy, practice, or research; and adopting consultation as a required component of scoping study methodology. Int J Soc Res Methodol. Scoping reviews serve to synthesize evidence and assess the scope of literature on a topic. 2009 Oct;62(10):e1-34. We each completed a scoping study in separate areas of rehabilitation using the Arksey and O'Malley framework [6]. The checklist contains 20 essential reporting items and 2 optional items to include when completing a scoping review. Scoping studies may be particularly relevant to disciplines with emerging evidence, such as rehabilitation science, in which the paucity of randomized controlled trials makes it difficult for researchers to undertake systematic reviews. We recommend an additional step to charting the data in which two researchers independently extract data from the first five to ten studies using the data-charting form and meet to determine whether their approach to data extraction is consistent with the research question and purpose. Arksey and O'Malley [6] describe the need to provide a descriptive numerical summary, stating that researchers should describe the characteristics of included studies, such as the overall number of studies included, types of study design, years of publication, types of interventions, characteristics of the study populations, and countries where studies were conducted. Despite its increasing use, to date no article reflecting use of scoping review methodology has been submitted for review at JAANP. After independently considering our own experiences utilizing the Arskey and O'Malley [6] framework, we met on seven occasions to discuss the challenges and develop recommendations for each stage of the methodological framework. KO is supported by a Fellowship from the CIHR, HIV/AIDS Research Program and a Michael DeGroote Postdoctoral Fellowship (McMaster University). 2009, 46: 1386-1400. However, the recommendations that we propose are derived from our subjective experiences undertaking scoping studies of varying sizes in the rehabilitation field, and we recognize that they may not represent the opinions of all scoping study authors. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.06.006. The authors provide a rationale and an example of good reporting for each item. Community health workers in humanitarian settings: Scoping review. Part of We experienced this stage as more iterative and requiring additional steps than implied in the original framework. Results yielded insights into how researchers should better describe interventions in their publications and provided further considerations for clinicians to make informed decisions about which therapeutic approach might best fit their clients' needs. Levac D, Wishart L, Missiuna C, Wright V: The application of motor learning strategies within functionally based interventions for children with neuromotor conditions. Second, we recommend that a scoping study team be assembled whose members provide the methodological and context expertise needed for decisions regarding breadth and comprehensiveness. Next, two reviewers should independently review the full articles for inclusion. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. [2] and Davis et al. Lastly, the fourth purpose of undertaking a scoping study -- to identify gaps in the existing literature -- may yield false conclusions about the nature and extent of those gaps if the quality of the evidence is not assessed. While this framework provided an excellent methodological foundation, published scoping studies continue to lack sufficient methodological description or detail about the data analysis process, making it challenging for readers to understand how study findings were determined [1]. enhancements #1 Identifying the research question: The scoping review question must be clearly defined as it plays a role in all subsequent stages including search strategy.  |  Our experiences indicated that this is a highly valuable, though challenging aspect of scoping studies, as we struggled to chart and summarize complex concepts in a meaningful way. Scoping reviews, a type of knowledge synthesis, follow a systematic approach to map evidence on a topic and identify main concepts, theories, sources, and knowledge gaps. Following a methodological framework, a scoping literature review was undertaken. 1. This paper responds to Arksey and O'Malley's [6] request for feedback to their proposed methodological framework. This recommendation leads to the final stage of the framework. Furthermore, it is unclear how this purpose differs from existing methods of determining feasibility for a systematic review. Hsieh HF, Shannon SE: Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. However, practical issues related to time, funding, and access to resources often require researchers to consider the balance between feasibility, breadth, and comprehensiveness. Implement Sci. A strength of scoping studies includes the breadth and depth, or comprehensiveness, of evidence covered in a given field [1]. This stage involves extracting data from included studies. [5] state that this lack of quality assessment makes the results of scoping studies more challenging to interpret. The checklist was developed by a 24-member expert panel and 2 research leads following published guidance from the EQUATOR (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) Network. Although only one of our three scoping studies incorporated this stage, we argue that it adds methodological rigor and should be considered a required component. Milbank Q. Scoping studies (or scoping reviews) represent an increasingly popular approach to reviewing health research evidence [1]. We concur with Anderson et al. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Work. (2) 9 Most common reasons for conducting a scoping review*, N = 494 ... Scoping review steps by the Joanna Briggs Institute 7. For example, in one study, authors had difficulty developing one data-charting form that could apply to all included studies representing a range study designs, reviews, reports, and commentaries [7]. As a preliminary step, authors decided to classify the included studies into three areas --HIV disability, interventions, and roles of rehabilitation professionals in HIV care -- to help determine the nature and extent of information to extract from each of the types of studies [7]. Colquhoun H, Letts L, Law M, MacDermid J, Missiuna C: A scoping review of the use of theory in studies of knowledge translation. We recommend that at least two researchers each independently review abstracts yielded from the search strategy for study selection. Google Scholar. For example, for the question 'how are motor-learning strategies used within contemporary physical and occupational therapy intervention approaches for children with neuromotor conditions?,' the author (DL) presented themes that described strategy use. Developing a critical appraisal tool would require the elements of a methodologically rigorous scoping study to be defined. The authors acknowledge the helpful feedback of Dr. Cheryl Missiuna on an earlier draft of this manuscript. Correspondence to We recommend that researchers consider the rationale for why they should summarize the activity in a field and the implications that this will have on research, practice, or policy. 2010, 5: 2-10.1186/1748-5908-5-2. Methods: The review will follow Arksey and O’Malley (2005) and Levac et al.’s, (2010) Scoping Review Framework. 2020 Jun;19(2):119-127. doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2020.06.002. As such, researchers can use scoping studies to clarify a complex concept and refine subsequent research inquiries [1]. Brien S, Lorenzetti D, Lewis S, Kennedy J, Ghali W: Overview of a formal scoping review on health system report cards. 10.1097/PEP.0b013e3181beb09d. Implementation Sci 5, 69 (2010). Terms and Conditions, This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Uncertainty about the nature and extent of data that should be extracted may be resolved by researchers beginning the charting process and becoming familiar with study data, and then meeting again to refine the form. Evidence on the reach and impact of the social physical activity phenomenon, 001/World Health Organization/International. 2009 Jul 21;6(7):e1000100. 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